Coxsackievirus A16 is the most common cause of HFMD. There's no specific treatment for hand-foot-and-mouth disease.  Most cases of the disease are relatively harmless, but complications including encephalitis, meningitis, and paralysis that mimics the neurological symptoms of polio can occur. Data sources include IBM Watson Micromedex (updated 7 Dec 2020), Cerner Multum™ (updated 4 Dec 2020), ASHP (updated 3 Dec 2020) and others. Hand, foot and mouth disease appears most often in warm weather – usually in the summer or early autumn. Hand, foot and mouth disease is a common childhood illness that can affect adults. Signs and symptoms of hand-foot-and-mouth disease usually clear up in seven to 10 days.A topical oral anesthetic may help relieve the pain of mouth sores. HFMD mainly affects children under the age of 10, but can also affect adolescents.  HFMD is contracted through nose and throat secretions such as saliva, sputum, nasal mucus and as well as fluid in blisters, and stool. , Handwashing may prevent spread, and those infected should not go to work, daycare or school. In 2010 in China, an outbreak occurred in southern China's Guangxi Autonomous Region as well as Guangdong, Henan, Hebei and Shandong provinces. , Preventive measures include avoiding direct contact with infected individuals (including keeping infected children home from school), proper cleaning of shared utensils, disinfecting contaminated surfaces, and proper hand hygiene. Signs and symptoms normally appear 3–6 days after exposure to the virus. Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) or hoof-and-mouth disease (HMD) is an infectious and sometimes fatal viral disease that affects cloven-hoofed animals, including domestic and wild bovids.  Non-neurologic complications such as inflammation of the heart, fluid in the lungs, or bleeding into the lungs may also occur. Hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) is an infection caused by a virus. Most children have mild symptoms for 7 to 10 days. Hand, Foot & Mouth Disease: Updates . It is caused by infection with the coxsackievirus virus. , This article is about viral disease. , HFMD cases were first described clinically in Canada and New Zealand in 1957. The following signs and symptoms of HFMD normally go away within 7 to 10 days: Your healthcare provider can usually diagnose HFMD by examining you. The following are childcare centres and kindergartens with prolonged transmission. What are the signs and symptoms of HFMD? Causes. Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD), a highly contagious viral disease affecting practically all cloven-footed domesticated mammals, including cattle, sheep, goats, and pigs. Cold foods like popsicles, smoothies, or ice cream are easier to swallow.  The rash is rarely itchy for children, but can be extremely itchy for adults. Hand, foot and mouth disease is a common viral illness that mainly affects children under 5 years old, but can sometimes affect older children and adults.  The relationship between HFMD and the reported nail loss is unclear; however, it is temporary and nail growth resumes without treatment. The infection may rarely affect adults.  Diagnosis can often be made based on symptoms. , HFMD occurs in all areas of the world. Children under age 10 are most often affected. Humans do not get the animal disease, and animals do not get the human disease. Preliminary studies have shown inhibitors of the EV-71 viral capsid to have potent antiviral activity. Currently, there is no specific curative treatment for hand, foot and mouth disease. , Protective habits include hand washing and disinfecting surfaces in play areas.  Some people may carry and pass on the virus despite having no symptoms of disease.  No antiviral medication or vaccine is available, but development efforts are underway. Though it mostly affects young children, it can occur at any age.  If the diagnosis is unclear, a throat swab or stool specimen may be taken to identify the virus by culture. Pain from the sores may be eased with the use of analgesic medications. Hand-foot-mouth disease is a common viral infection that most often begins in the throat. , Since 1997 there have been 71 large enterovirus outbreaks reported, mostly in East and South East Asia, primarily affecting children. It's most common in young children – particularly those under 10 – but can affect older children and adults as well. It spreads very easily, but it’s usually pretty harmless. Hand-foot-and-mouth disease — a mild, contagious viral infection common in young children — is characterized by sores in the mouth and a rash on the hands and feet.  Occasionally, intravenous fluids are given to children who are unable to drink enough. You have a high fever and your heart is beating much faster than it usually does. The virus causes a high fever lasting two to six days, followed by blisters inside the mouth and on the feet that may rupture and cause lameness. Symptoms of hand, foot, and mouth disease usually include fever, mouth sores, and skin rash. All illustrations and images included in CareNotes® are the copyrighted property of A.D.A.M., Inc. or IBM Watson Health. Other serious complications of HFMD include encephalitis (inflammation of the brain), or flaccid paralysis in rare circumstances. You have trouble breathing, are breathing very fast, or you cough up pink, foamy spit. , Fingernail and toenail loss have been reported in children 4–8 weeks after having HFMD.  From the years 2008 to 2014, more than 1 million HFMD cases have been reported in China each year. It is most commonly caused by the Coxsackie A16 virus. Hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) is a common infection caused by a group of viruses. It is estimated that 10-15 million symptomatic infections occur annually in the U.S. Hand, foot, and mouth disease produces a characteristic rash on the hands and feet and blisters in the mouth. The rash generally resolves on its own in about a week. For the chemotherapy-induced condition, see, "Coxsackievirus A6 and Hand, Foot, and Mouth Disease: Three Case Reports of Familial Child-to-Immunocompetent Adult Transmission and a Literature Review", "Hand, Foot, and Mouth Disease (HFMD) Complications", "New concepts in median nail dystrophy, onychomycosis, and hand, foot and mouth disease nail pathology", "Hand, foot, and mouth disease: Identifying and managing an acute viral syndrome", "The characteristics of blood glucose and WBC counts in peripheral blood of cases of hand foot and mouth disease in China: a systematic review", "Development of antiviral agents toward enterovirus 71 infection", "Foot and Mouth Disease update: further temporary control zone established in Surrey", "Epidemiological characteristics of hand, foot, and mouth disease in Shandong, China, 2009–2016", "Hand, Foot and Mouth Disease: Signs & Symptoms", "The Epidemiology of Hand, Foot and Mouth Disease in Asia: A Systematic Review and Analysis", "A literature review and case report of hand, foot and mouth disease in an immunocompetent adult", "Etiology, pathogenesis, antivirals and vaccines of hand, foot, and mouth disease", "Deaths of Children during an Outbreak of Hand, Foot, and Mouth Disease in Sarawak, Malaysia: Clinical and Pathological Characteristics of the Disease", "Enterovirus 71 in Malaysia: A decade later", "Assessing the Prevalence of Hand, Foot and Mouth Disease (HFMD) Using Geospatial Density and Distribution Techniques", "Deaths among children during an outbreak of hand, foot, and mouth disease--Taiwan, Republic of China, April–July 1998", Viet Nam News: HFMD cases prompt tighter health screening at airport, "Hand-foot-mouth disease death toll rises to 17 in East China's Shandong Province", "Health Ministry: Hand-foot-mouth disease claims 50 lives this year", "China reports 537 deaths from hand-foot-mouth disease this year", "Outbreak of hand, foot and mouth disease severe in Alabama", "Joint Press Release Between The Ministry of Health Kingdom of Cambodia and the World Health Organization", "Mysterious deadly illness in Cambodian children tied to hand, foot and mouth disease", "Emerging disease surveillance and response", "Over 50,000 cases of HFMD recorded, virus strain relatively benign", "A 2-Year-Old Boy In Sarawak Suffering From HFMD Has Died", "17-month-old boy's death in Penang due to HFMD", Highly contagious Hand, foot and mouth disease killing China's children, Papular purpuric gloves and socks syndrome, Asymmetric periflexural exanthem of childhood, Hereditary benign intraepithelial dyskeratosis, Neuralgia-inducing cavitational osteonecrosis, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Hand,_foot,_and_mouth_disease&oldid=996431573, Articles containing potentially dated statements from December 2015, All articles containing potentially dated statements, Articles lacking reliable references from November 2018, Articles containing potentially dated statements from July 2012, Wikipedia medicine articles ready to translate, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, Enteroviral vesicular stomatitis with exanthem, Typical lesions around the mouth of an 11-month-old boy, In 2008 an outbreak in China, beginning in March in, In 2009 17 children died in an outbreak during March and April 2009 in China's eastern.  This is followed a day or two later by flat discolored spots or bumps that may blister, on the hands, feet and mouth and occasionally buttocks and groin. Hand, foot, and mouth disease is a viral infection.  It often occurs in small outbreaks in nursery schools or kindergartens.  HFMD should not be confused with foot-and-mouth disease (also known as hoof-and-mouth disease), which mostly affects livestock. Hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) is due to an infection that usually causes a typical illness, including a typical rash. Hand, foot, and mouth disease is common in infants and children younger than five years old. The easiest way to lookup drug information, identify pills, check interactions and set up your own personal medication records.  The disease was termed "Hand Foot and Mouth Disease", by Thomas Henry Flewett, after a similar outbreak in 1960.  Typically it occurs in children less than five years old but can occasionally occur in adults.  Enterovirus 71 (EV-71) is the second-most common cause.  Other animals are not involved. HFMD is easily spread from person to person through direct contact. Hand, foot and mouth disease can be unpleasant, but it will usually clear up by itself within 7 to 10 days. It spreads from person to person by coughing or sneezing, or by contact with mucus, saliva, blisters or the poo of an infected person. It may even spread from person to person. , Hand, foot and mouth disease most commonly occurs in children under the age of 10. Over-the-counter pain medications other than aspirin, such as acetaminophen (Tylenol, others) or ibuprofen (Advil, Motrin, others) may help relieve general discomfort. Your mouth or throat are so sore you cannot eat or drink. HFMD can also involve the hands, feet, buttocks, and/or genitalia. Medications are usually not needed as hand, foot, and mouth disease is a viral disease that typically resolves on its own.  Breast-feeding has also shown to decrease rates of severe HFMD, though does not reduce the risk for the infection of the disease. HFMD infections caused by Enterovirus 71 tend to be more severe and are more likely to have neurologic or cardiac complications including death than infections caused by Coxsackievirus A16. The term exanthem is used to designate a rash caused by a virus. Last updated on Nov 16, 2020. illness that causes sores or blisters in or on the mouth and on the hands HFMD is easily spread from person to person through direct contact.  Rarely, viral meningitis or encephalitis may complicate the disease. You may also need medicine to decrease a fever or pain. , Rash on hand and feet of a 36-year-old man, The viruses that cause the disease are of the Picornaviridae family. It usually clears up by itself in 7 to 10 days.  It tends to occur in outbreaks during the spring, summer, and autumn seasons. 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